Studies on the Human Ear

Middle Ear

CONTENTS

Introduction to the Studies

THE FIRST STUDY (General Description)

Introduction

General Definition

The Position of the Ears

General Description of the Parts of the Ear

General Functions

The Threshold of Hearing

The Duration of Sound in the Ears

The Involuntary Protection of the Ear

Sounds Created Within the Human Body

Extending the Limits of Human Hearing

Final Remarks

THE SECOND STUDY (The Outer Ear)

Introduction

The Outer Ear

The External Ear

The Auditory Canal

The Amplification of Sound in the Outer Ear

Resonance

The Natural Tuning of the Ears

Binaural Hearing

Binaural Location and Directionality

Final Remarks

THE THIRD STUDY (The Middle Ear)

Introduction

The Middle Ear

The Eardrum

The Ossicular Chain

The Oval Window

The Round Window

The Transfer of Sound

Across the Middle Ear

The Eustachian Tube

The Middle Ear Cavity

The Equalization of Air Pressure in the Middle Ear Cavity

The Amplification of Sound in the Middle Ear

The Attenuation of Sound in the Middle Ear

The Middle Ear Muscles

Musical Tones Created in the Ear

Final Remarks

THE FOURTH STUDY (The Inner Ear)

Introduction

The Inner Ear

The Vestibule

The Cochlea

The Oval Window

The Round Window

The Path of Sound in the Inner Ear

The Cochlear Canals

The Cochlear Membranes

The Organ of Corti

The Traveling Wave

The Acoustic Analyzer

Hair Cells

The Cilia

The Body of the Hair Cell

The Base of the Hair Cell

The Inner Hair Cells

The Outer Hair Cells

Summary of the Hair Cells

The Cochlear Neurons

The Acoustic Nerve

The Cochlear Nucleus

The Semicircular Canals

The Otolith Organs

Final Remarks

THE FIFTH STUDY (General Interests and Concerns)

Introduction

The Evolution of the Ear

       Hearing in Other Animals

Hearing Problems Caused by Birth Defects, Injury, and Disease

Hearing Loss

Final Remarks